The papal tiara originated from a conical Phryian cap.

Names used for the papal tiara in the 8th and 9th centuries include camelaucum, pileus, phrygium and pileum phrygium.

A circlet of linen or cloth of gold at the base of the tiara developed into a metal crown, (this is Henry’s reference to the ‘helmed one’) which by about 1300 became two crowns. The first of these appeared at the base of the traditional white papal headgear in the 9th century. When the popes assumed temporal power in the Papal States, the base crown became decorated with jewels to resemble the crowns of princes. The second crown is said to have been added by Pope Innocent III (1198–1216) as signifying both his spiritual and temporal power, since he declared that God had set him over Kings and Kingdoms.

On a personal note which has much to do with my investigation into the sepulchre of Joseph of Arimathea on Burgh Island: It should be understood in the modern era that God never set the pope over anyone, least of all a third of the Globe’s Christian souls. The pope’s power is self-professed and based on the biggest fraud…. over and above Henry Blois’.

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